Photo of a primary school in Pakistan

Photo of a primary school in Pakistan

Education lays the foundation for political, social, and economic development
of any country. An effective education system enables the nation to achieve that
national goals. Pakistan as a developing country is facing serious problems
in education since its inception therefore, the education system has
failed to customize. There are many types
the factors that cause this condition. This Blog examines some of the key issues
problems that have plagued the education system in Pakistan.

Use on the basis of critical reviews of available documents, this article outlines solutions for
existing problems of the education system in Pakistan.

Today, Pakistan is faced with a host of problems, such as poverty, insecurity, sectarianism, and terrorism. The causes of these problems are intolerance, lack of general awareness and illiteracy are encouraged.
through an inefficient education system. The important role of education is ignored in Pakistan which has led to it in low development in all spheres of life. Education is treated as an adopted child. The lowest budget we have
provided with education program since the establishment of Pakistan which has weakened
the foundation of quality in the education system. The education system, therefore, has failed to grow the nation
economic, political, and social. After the expiration of 100 years and the acceptance of more than 25 years
education policies, however the education system has failed miserably to rid the nation of this growth
Economic, political and social problems. Problems associated with the education system in Pakistan lack of adequate budget, lack of policy implementation, inefficient testing system, defective body structures, lack of quality of teachers, lack of education policy implementation, indirect education, low enrollment, high-level resignation, politics interference, outdated curriculum, corruption, mismanagement and supervision, lack of research.
The problems mentioned above can be solved by developing sound policies as well planning and ensuring the effective implementation of policies. Education is a nourishing force. By constructive aspect of any society. Education enables people to work for their growth and development.
Education therefore exposes the hidden power of human beings and develops them


The educational system was thought of by the founding fathers as the driving force behind it all
national goals. It was decided at the first 1974 national education conference held in Karachi that
the education system will operate in accordance with the national aspirations of Pakistan. The education system would do
they are really related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. The father of the nation Quiad-e- Azam Muhammad
Ali Jinnah the main purpose of the education system in Pakistan was to improve the morale of the country of Pakistan
generation. This national character will contain a high sense of commitment, social integrity, self-sacrifice
nationalism and the morals of the people of Pakistan.
To strengthen the role of education, various education commissions were also established
committees were formed. But it’s funny to see that the performance has been so bad. Because
this time the standard of education in the country is poor instead of making progress. One
The problem that has affected the system is the growing gaps and the distance between education
institutions and the community. Parental involvement in the education system is important in ensuring quality
feature. Home is the child’s first school. Without parental involvement in the education process i
Successful implementation of policies will remain a long way off. This will solve the problem of diversity as well.


The education system in Pakistan despite major claims and programs faces the following problems
which is analyzed by analysis below.

Lack of uniformity

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Lack of uniformity

The education system in Pakistan according to Iqbal (1981) is not based on the same principles .
Different educational programs operate simultaneously in the country. The curriculum also does not exist
a uniform full of different schools of thought. For example there is a different world among the attitudes of students from community learning institutions, Deeni Madaris and
a few specialized institutions. This practice has accelerated the pace of social isolation. In accordance with
Zaki (1989) this is the result of Pakistan’s segregated education system .

This program has created a huge gap
within the nation and even deeper into the cultural veins of the nation. The latest wave of
terrorism and the proliferation of sectarian systems are the logical results of this divided system of
education. As a result of the current divisive education system there has been a huge social divide
in society for political, social, and economic reasons rather than social cohesion
deepening is the foundation of the ideological and social fabric of the nation that leads to the further division of language
and regional causes that may undermine social cohesion and social fabric.

Education without direction

A sound education system is important for all nations of the world . Each nation is building its own
generation on the basis of intensive training and education in social, political, economic and ideological
reasons. Pakistan’s education system because it has no direction and is weak could not develop and manage
its people for legitimate political and social reasons. There is a lack of unity in the system and it is very common
with regard to general education that does not bring skilled workers to the market. The result is there
increased unemployment. This condition can promote feelings of deprivation among many people . Due to
this has cultural and political tensions in the community. Apart from that, there is a lack of educational opportunities for
science and technology. In this way the development of thinking, reasoning and art of students is not

The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future life. - Plato | Plato quotes, Plato, Picture quotes


Outdated curricula

Curriculum is the tool through which the goals of education are achieved. The curriculum of
education in Pakistan does not meet the demands of the current times. It is an old and traditional curriculum which compels the learners to memorize certain facts and figures without taking into consideration the reality
that education is the holistic development of an individual. It places much emphasis on the psychology of the
learner as well which cannot be negated in the process of teaching and learning. The objectives of education
must be developed the psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of education. The present
educational curriculum of Pakistan does not meet these modern standards of education and research. Hence
this curriculum is not promoting the interest of the learner for practical work, research, scientific knowledge
and reflective observation, rather, it emphasizes on memory and theory.

Lack of professional development of teachers
Training is essential for quality performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is lack of training
opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there various teacher training institutes in the country. These
institutes are either not well resourced or being poor run due to lack of fund and trained human resource such
trainers and administrators. There are no proper training standards in the available training institutes around
the country. Most of the training institutes have been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being
run in the teacher education intuitions are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance the skills,
motivation and quality of teachers.

Lack of quality teachers
Teacher is the backbone of education system. The quality of teachers in Pakistani schools is
deplorable. According to a UNESCO report, the quality of the teachers and instruction in schools is of low
quality. This situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan where even there are
no teachers available in schools. Research has found that teachers do not use new methods and strategies of
teaching and learning. Majority of the teachers do not know about lesson planning which renders them
incapable of dealing with various problems in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers encourage
cramming of the materials by students. Students do not know the use of libraries in educational institutions.
Thus the reading habits are decreasing among the students. Teachers are highly responsible for all this mess.
It is their professional responsibility to guide the students towards book reading. Teachers rely on lecture
methods which do provide an opportunity to students to participate in the process of education as active
member. They only note does the information and memorize this just to pass the examination. Thus students
are evaluated on the basis of memorization of facts and information rather than performance.

Poor supervisory standards
The role of supervision is to explore weaknesses or faults of teachers and showing a harsh treatment
in form of transfers to remote areas or even termination from services [12]. Supervision is the monitoring of
teaching and learning. Through effective supervision techniques the process of teaching and learning could be
improved. The system of school supervision is aimless. There is not only lack of supervisory activities in
schools but the process of supervision itself does not bring any positive results for teachers and students.Supervision system is concerned with controlling and harassing the teachers rather than providing help and
guidance for improvement of performance

Internal and external influences
Education system in Pakistan is not free from external and internal influences. Externally the system
has been made hostage to political interference and internally it is plagued by the bureaucratic manipulations. There is a greater favoritism and nepotism in matters of transfers, appointments and promotions. Due to
this the basic infrastructure of the education system in Pakistan has affected.

Lack of resources

Towards Setting Up a State of the Art Basic Education System in Pakistan

Education resources such as books, libraries and physical facilities are important for smooth running of educational process. There are despairingly no facilities of books, libraries and reading materials in all
educational institutions of the country. Besides, there are overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teachers and
ill-equipped laboratories. This entire grim situation has resulted in a despair and low standard education system.


Policy implementation
Since the inception of Pakistan a number of education policies were created. There has been lack of
political will on the part of successive government to implement the policies vigorously. The policies were
highly ambitious but could not be implemented in true letter and spirit. There has been problem of corruption,
lack of funds and gross inconsistency in successive planning on the part of various political regimes in
Pakistan. Moreover, in the overall policy formulation teachers have been ignored. They are regarded as
unimportant element which has led to alienation between the teachers and the system of education.

Low budgetary allocation for education
Finance is considered the engine of any system. The education system of Pakistan has been crippled
mainly due to scarce finance. The successive governments have been giving less than 2.5 percent budget to
the education sector which is not sufficient for the growing educational needs of the nation in the present
changing times. In many of the developing regional countries such as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh the
budgetary allocation for education has increased. But in Pakistan it is declining day by day.
According to International Crisis group, Pakistan is amongst the 12 countries in the world that spent
less than 2 percent of their GDP on education sector. With this insufficient budgetary allocation, the
country is hardly going to meet the targets of universalization of primary education as a signatory to the
Dakar Conference’s MDG goals by 2015 and onward.

Among other causes, corruption is the main contributing factor which has deeply affected the
education system of Pakistan. There is a weak system of check and balances and accountability which has
encouraged many criminal elements to misappropriate funds, use of authority illegally and giving
unnecessary favors in allocation of funds, transfers, promotions and decision making. According to
Transparency International, Pakistan is included in the list of the most corrupt countries of the world. Due
to low salaries, teachers in search of decent life standards and to keep their body and soul together attempt to
unfair means in the examination and matters relating to certificates, degrees and so on.

This paper concludes that education develops people in all domains of life such as social, moral,
spiritual, political and economic. It is a dynamic force which enables every nation to achieve its overall
national goals. It is an established fact that countries that have developed a sound system of education have a
sound social and political system. With effective educational systems many countries are playing a leadership
role in the comity of nations. They are enjoying their liberties and also are politically and economically free
and developed. The education system of Pakistan has not been able to play its role effectively in nation
building. This factor has contributed towards development of frustration among the Pakistani society. The
future generation of Pakistan is directionless due to defective education system which has drastically failed to
raise the nation on sound economic, social, political and moral grounds. The directionless system of education
is producing forces of degree holders who are deficient in high order live skills such as reflection, critical
thinking, analysis, research and creativity. The education system instead has focused on feeding the
individuals with outdated information and knowledge which is less relevant to the current fast changing world. Students coming out of the Pakistani education system are theoretically sound but have no skills to
apply whatever they learn from their institutions due to the traditional methods of teaching and learning.
Finally, this study concludes that the there is an urgent need to reform the system of education of
Pakistan and for this purpose this study presents the following recommendations.

There should be sufficient budgetary allocation for education in the national GDP. This will provide the
system with resources to take fresh breath of life.
There should be quality institutions for the professional development of teachers form primary to higher
levels. For this purpose the existing system of teacher education institutions must be provided with funds
qualified human resources to run programs of training for teachers on periodical basis.
The system of accountability must be strengthened and all the professionals associated with the system of
education should be educated to own their responsibilities on individual and collective basis. This help in
creating a sense of ownership of the system and its functions.
Curriculum should be evaluated on annual basis. In this regard a vast survey could be conducted to seek
opinions of teachers, parents and community regarding their expectations and observations. In this light
of this and the expert recommendations of the educations researchers the curriculum goals should be
redefined and the such curriculum should be prepared which caters to the psyche and needs of the society
and the country without any discrimination of cast, color and creed.
There should be as less political interference as possible. This will allow the system to function smoothly
and without any discrimination. Frequent political intervention creates gaps in the system which has led to
corruption and other evils.
Polices should be implemented without any delay of time and resources. There should be a strong
political will on the part of the government to implement polices without any delay. Poor policy
implementation has led to creation of gaps and trust deficit on the part of the public and government
Examination system should be made free form the mafia of unfair means, corruption and illegal
gratifications. For this purpose the system of supervision and inspection could be improved both
physically and theoretically. The government should enhance the salaries and the education professionals
so that their tendencies are not diverted towards evil means of getting favors and support.
The culture of research should be promoted within educational institutions. For this purpose the pace of
research oriented programs in teaching and learning should be accelerated in educational institutions
around the country especially at higher levels. Government should increase the volume of funding to
higher education commission for this purpose.

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